Research Publications

Dr Sengupta’s research is focused on improving the quality of life for axial spondyloarthritis patients. He is also interested in reducing the delay to diagnosis for these patients. He has collaborated extensively with researchers at the University of Bath under the umbrella of SPARC (SPondyloArthritis Research Consortium) –

He has developed an exceptionally well documented cohort of patients with axial spondyloarthritis that has underpinned several clinical, genetic and observational research studies and provided the basis for a strong clinical trial programme. He has developed a prospective database that is one of the largest single centre in UK with recruitment of over 1000 patients.

He has an excellent track record for recruitment to clinical studies with a wide portfolio of axial spondyloarthritis studies. Currently he has grant applications in process with the University of Bath, University College London, University of Oxford, University of Aberdeen and Imperial College.


Sengupta R, Kyle V. Diagnosing polymyalgia rheumatica. The Practitioner. 2006 Nov;250(1688):40-47. Link

Sengupta R, Stone M. The assessment of ankylosing spondylitis in clinical practice. Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology 2007. Sept; 3 (9):496. Link

Stone MA, Sengupta R, Ramanan AV, Pomeroy E. 2009. British Medical Journal Best Practice Monograph: Ankylosing spondylitis

Stone MA, Pomeroy E, Keat A, Sengupta R, Hickey S, Dieppe P, Inman RD. Assessment of impact of flares in ankylosing spondylitis disease activity using the flare illustration. Rheumatology 2008 Aug;47(8):1213-8. Link

Deepak Jadon, William Tillett, Dinny Wallis, Charlotte Cavill, John Bowes, Nicola Waldron, Anna Dixon, Raj Sengupta, Anne Barton, Eleanor Korendowych and Neil J. McHugh. Exploring ankylosing spondylitis-associated ERAP1, IL23R and IL12B gene polymorphisms in subphenotypes of psoriatic arthritis. Rheumatology (2013) 52 (2): 261-266. Link

Isdale A, Keat A, Barkham N, Bennett AN, Gaffney K, Marzo-Ortega H, Sengupta R. Expanding the spectrum of inflammatory spinal disease: AS it was, as it is now. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 Jul 19. Link

Tillett W, Jadon D, Shaddick G, Sengupta R, de Vries CS, McHugh N. Reliability, feasibility and sensitivity of four peripheral radiographic scores for PsA. Arthritis Care & Research. 2014;66(2):311-7. Link

Deepak R. Jadon, Athimalaipet V. Ramanan, and Raj Sengupta. Juvenile Versus Adult-onset Ankylosing Spondylitis — Clinical, Radiographic, and Social Outcomes. A Systematic Review.  The Journal of Rheumatology. 2013;40(11):1797-805. Link

Jadon D, Sengupta R, Ramanan A. Challenges in the management and research of juvenile onset ankylosing spondylitis. Int J Clin Rheumatology 2013;8(6):1-3. Link

Phil Hamann and Raj Sengupta. Back to the future: The diagnosis and management of back pain in primary care. Clinical Focus Primary Care 2013. 7(3):184-189

Jadon D, Shaddick G, Jobling A, Ramanan AV, Sengupta R. Clinical outcomes and progression to orthopaedic surgery in juvenile versus adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis care & research 67 (5), 651-657. Link

Jadon DR, Nightingale AL, McHugh NJ, Lindsay MA, Korendowych E, Sengupta R. Serum Soluble Bone Turnover Biomarkers in Psoriatic Arthritis and Psoriatic Spondyloarthropathy. J Rheumatol 2015; 42:21-30 doi:10.3899/jrheum.140223. Link

Sykes MP, Doll H, Sengupta R, Gaffney K. Delay to diagnosis in axial spondyloarthritis: are we improving in the UK? Rheumatology 54 (12), 2283-2284. Link

Sykes M, Doll H, Sengupta R, Gaffney K. Comment on: delay to diagnosis in axial spondyloarthritis: are we improving in the UK?: Reply. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016;55(9):1707–1708. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kew181. Link

Leverment S, Clarke E, Wadeley A, Sengupta R. Prevalence and factors associated with disturbed sleep in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a systematic review. Rheumatol Int. 2016 Oct 28. Rheumatology international 37 (2), 257-271. Link

Gunasekera W, Creamer P, Creamer K, Sengupta R. Monitoring patients with ankylosing spondylitis on anti-TNF monotherapy: too much too often? Scand J Rheumatol. 2017;46(4):330–331. doi:10.1080/03009742.2016.1209554. Link

Hamilton L, Barkham N, Bhalla A, Brittain R, Cook D, Jones G, Mackay K, Marshall D, Marzo-Ortega H, Murphy D, Riddell C, Sengupta R, Siebert S, Van Rossen L, Gaffney K. BSR and BHPR guideline for the treatment of axial spondyloarthritis (including ankylosing spondylitis) with biologics. Rheumatology 2016:56 (2), 313-316. Link

Jadon DR, Sengupta R, Nightingale A, Lindsay M, Korendowych E, Robinson G, Jobling A, Shaddick G, Bi J, Winchester R, Giles JT, McHugh NJ. Axial Disease in Psoriatic Arthritis study: defining the clinical and radiographic phenotype of psoriatic spondyloarthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2017;76:701-707. Link

Keat A, Bennett AN, Gaffney K, Marzo-Ortega H, Sengupta R, Everiss T. Should axial spondyloarthritis without radiographic changes be treated with anti-TNF agents?. Rheumatol Int. 2017;37(3):327–336. doi:10.1007/s00296-016-3635-8. Link

Espahbodi S, Bassett P, Cavill C, Freeth M, Hole J, Sengupta R. Fatigue contributes to work productivity impairment in patients with axialspondyloarthritis: a cross-sectional UK study. Clinical and experimental rheumatology 2017:35 (4), 571-578. Link

D Jadon, R Sengupta, A Nightingale, H Lu, J Dunphy, A Green, J T Elder, R P Nair, E Korendowych, M Lindsay, N McHugh. Serum bone-turnover biomarkers are associated with the occurrence of peripheral and axial arthritis in psoriatic disease: A prospective cross-sectional comparative study. Arthritis research & therapy 2017:19 (1), 210. Link

Family H, Jordan A, Blaxall K, Sengupta R. A truly complementary approach: A qualitative exploration of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners’ views of treating ankylosing spondylitis. Musculoskeletal Care. 2018;16(1):96–102. doi:10.1002/msc.1217. Link

Lim CSE, Sengupta R, Gaffney K. The clinical utility of human leucocyte antigen B27 in axial spondyloarthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2018;57(6):959–968. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kex345. Link

Sengupta R, Marzo-Ortega H, McGonagle D, Wadeley A, Bennett AN; British Society for Spondyloarthritis. Short-term Repeat Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans in Suspected Early Axial Spondyloarthritis Are Clinically Relevant Only in HLA-B27-positive Male Subjects. The Journal of rheumatology 2018:45 (2), 202-205. Link

Yahya F, Gaffney K, Hamilton L, Lonsdale E, Leeder J, Brooksby A, Cavill C, Berry-Jenkins J, Boyle C, Bond D, Sengupta R; BRITSpA. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor survival and predictors of response in axial spondyloarthritis-findings from a United Kingdom cohort. Rheumatology 2018. 57(4); 619-624. Link

Wadeley A, Clarke E, Leverment S, Sengupta R. Sleep in ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: associations with disease activity, gender and mood. Clin Rheumatol. 2018;37(4):1045–1052. doi:10.1007/s10067-018-3984-7. Link

Jones A, Ciurtin C, Ismajli M, Leandro M, Sengupta R, Machado PM. Biologics for treating axial spondyloarthritis. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2018;18(6):641–652. doi:10.1080/14712598.2018.1468884. Link

Macfarlane GJ, MacDonald R, Pathan E, Siebert S, Gaffney K, Choy E, Packham J, Martin K, Haywood K, Sengupta R, Atzeni F, Jones GT. Influence of co-morbid fibromyalgia on disease activity measures and response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in axial spondyloarthritis: results from a UK national register. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2018 Jul 20. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/key206. Link

Fariz Yahya, Karl Gaffney, Louise Hamilton, Ellie Lonsdale, Jane Leeder, Alan Brooksby, Charlotte Cavill, Joshua Berry-Jenkins, Cathal Boyle, Debbie Bond, Raj Sengupta; Comment on: Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor survival and predictors of response in axial spondyloarthritis — findings from a United Kingdom cohort: Reply, Rheumatology Advances in Practice, 2018. Link

Abraham, S, Barton, A, Eder, L, Lim, A, McGonagle, D, McHugh, N, Pennington, S, Sengupta, R, Siebert, S, Bowness, P and Schafer, P.H.2018, October. Advancing research paradigms and pathophysiological pathways in psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis: Proceedings of the 2017 Platform for the Exchange of Expertise and Research (PEER) Meeting. In Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. Link

Mohammad H Derakhshan, Nicola J Goodson, Jonathan C Packham, Raj Sengupta, Anna Molto, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Stefan Siebert, BRITSpA and COMOSPA Investigators. Increased Risk of Hypertension Associated with Spondyloarthritis Disease Duration: Results from the ASAS-COMOSPA Study. The Journal of Rheumatology January 2019, jrheum.180538; DOI: Link

Derakhshan MH, Goodson NJ, Packham J, Sengupta R, Molto A, Marzo Ortega H, Siebert S. Association of Diverticulitis with Prolonged Spondyloarthritis: An Analysis of the ASAS-COMOSPA International Cohort. J Clin Med. 2019;8(3):281. Published 2019 Feb 26. doi:10.3390/jcm8030281. Link

Hue W, Jones S, Sengupta R. Exploring the Future Role of Self-Tracking Data in the Rheumatology Clinic. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2019;259:33-38. Link

MacFarlane , G J , Pathan , E , Siebert , S , Packham , J , Gaffney , K , Choy , E H , Sengupta , R , Atzeni , F , Martin , K R , Jones , G T & Dean , L 2019 , ‘ AxSpA patients who also meet criteria for fibromyalgia : identifying distinct patient clusters using data from a UK national register (BSRBR-AS) ‘ BMC Rheumatology , vol. 3 , 19 , pp. 19. Link

Alice Heaney, Stephen P McKenna, Peter Hagell and Raj Sengupta. Improving scoring precision and internal construct validity of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) using Rasch Measurement Theory. The Journal of Rheumatology Vol. 46, Issue 6 1 Jun 2019. Link

Fariz Yahya, Karl Gaffney, Raj Sengupta on behalf of BRITSpA . Exploring sub-optimal response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in axial spondyloarthritis. Rheumatology Advances in Practice, Volume 3, Issue 1, 2019, rkz012. Link

Timothy J P Bray, Alexis Jones, Alexander N Bennett, Philip G Conaghan, Andrew Grainger, Richard Hodgson, Charles Hutchinson, Maria Leandro, Peter Mandl, Denis McGonagle, Phill O’Connor, Raj Sengupta, Marianna Thomas, Andoni Toms, Naomi Winn, Margaret A Hall-Craggs, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Pedro M Machado, British Society of Spondyloarthritis (BRITSpA), Recommendations for acquisition and interpretation of MRI of the spine and sacroiliac joints in the diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis in the UK, Rheumatology, kez173. Link

Abbie Jordan, Hannah Family, Kelly Blaxall, Fiona M. Begen and Raj Sengupta. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Axial Spondyloarthritis: A Qualitative Exploration of Self-Management. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 699. Link

Peter C Rouse, Martyn Standage, Raj Sengupta. Living with Ankylosing Spondylitis: An open response survey exploring physical activity experiences. Rheumatology Advances in Practice, Volume 3, Issue 2, 2019, rkz016. Link

Raybone K, Family H, Sengupta R, et al (Un)Spoken realities of living with axial spondyloarthritis: a qualitative study focused on couple experiences BMJ Open 2019;9:e025261. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025261. Link

Robinson, P.C., Sengupta, R. & Siebert, S. Non-Radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA): Advances in Classification, Imaging and Therapy. Rheumatol Ther (2019). Link

 Alan Bainbridge, Timothy JP Bray, Raj Sengupta, Margaret A Hall‐Craggs. Practical Approaches to Bone Marrow Fat Fraction Quantification Across Magnetic Resonance Imaging Platforms. Journal of Magnetic Resonance imaging 2020. Link

Yong CY, Hamilton J, Benepal J, Katie Griffiths, Zoe Clark, Amanda Rush, Raj Sengupta, Jane Martindale and Karl Gaffney. Awareness of axial spondyloarthritis among chiropractors and osteopaths: findings from a UK Web-based survey. Rheumatol Adv Pract. 2019;3(2):rkz034. Published 2019 Sep 30. doi:10.1093/rap/rkz034. Link

Andrew Keat, Alexander N Bennett, Karl Gaffney, Gareth T Jones, Jane Martindale, Raj Sengupta, Stefan Siebert, Helena Marzo-Ortega, BRITSpA at five, Rheumatology, kez523. Link

Williams T, Wadeley A, Bond D, Cavill C, Freeth M, Sengupta R. Real-world experience of secukinumab treatment for ankylosing spondylitis at the Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Bath [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jan 27]. Clin Rheumatol. 2020;10.1007/s10067-020-04944-5. doi:10.1007/s10067-020-04944-5. Link

Reilly E, McGrogan A, Sengupta R. Evaluating patient-reported fatigue and serum biomarkers in axial spondyloarthritis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 7]. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2020;keaa115. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keaa115. Link

Sinead Maguire, Raj Sengupta, Finbar O’Shea. The Future of Axial Spondyloathritis Treatment. Rheum Dis Clin Am (2020) Volume 46, Issue 2; 357-365. Link

Liz Van Rossen, Antoni Chan, Annie Gilbert, Karl Gaffney, Claire Harris, Pedro M Machado, Liliana R Santos, Raj Sengupta, Paul Basset, Andrew Keat. Response to lower dose TNF inhibitors in axial spondylarthritis; a “real world” multicentre observational study. Rheumatology Advances in Practice 2020 Link

Elizabeth Reilly and Raj Sengupta. Back pain, ankylosing spondylitis and social media usage; a descriptive analysis of current activity. Rheumatol Int (2020). Link

Christopher Martey and Raj Sengupta.. Physical therapy in axial spondyloarthritis: guidelines, evidence and clinical practice, Current Opinion in Rheumatology: July 2020 – Volume 32 – Issue 4 – p 365-370 Link

Huang F, Sun F, Wan WG,  Li-Jun WuLing-Li DongXiao ZhangTae-Hwan KimRaj SenguptaLadislav ŠenoltYi WangHao-Min QiuBrian PorterSibylle Haemmerle. Secukinumab provided significant and sustained improvement in the signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis: results from the 52-week, Phase III China-centric study, MEASURE 5 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 10]. Chin Med J (Engl). 2020;10.1097 Link

Elizabeth Reilly, Sarah Skeoch, Sarah Hardcastle, John D Pauling, Megan Rowe, Tehseen Ahmed, Andrew Allard, Bashaar Boyce, Ellie Korendowych, Chloe Lapraik, William Tillett and Raj SenguptaEvaluation of a patient self-stratification methodology to identify those in need of shielding during COVID-19. Clin Med (Lond). 2020;clinmed.2020-0469. doi:10.7861/clinmed.2020-0469 Link

Rosemarie Barnett, Thomas Ingram, Raj Sengupta. Axial spondyloarthritis 10 years on: still looking for the lost tribe, Rheumatology, Volume 59, Issue Supplement_4, October 2020, Pages iv25–iv37 Link


Axial Spondyloarthritis, edited by Siebert, Stefan, Raj Sengupta, and Alexander Tsoukas. 2016. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 201609.


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